Sunday, January 12, 2020

Major Inventions of the Late 19th Century and Early 20th Century

They have been many major inventions within the late 19th and early 20th century. Throughout history, these inventions have made great impacts on society. Three of these inventions that made the greatest impact are the telephone, the telegraph, and the light bulb. Each of these inventions has made a different impact in some way but they are still some of the greatest inventions.The telephone has left a huge impact on the world. The telephone is a device that can electronically transmit speech. Telephones are still today. People ranted about the helpful characteristics of the telephone.The telephone made communication easier and faster for people. It led to additional advances in networked communications. It also led to more job offerings, changes marketing and politics, and allowed more public feedback. At the same time privacy was a concern, but the telephone also increased privacy in many ways.It helped so people did not have to write letters to exchange information, yet people cou ld eavesdrop on phone calls since they would have to go to a local store to make a phone call. The telephone usage has increased at high percentages since it was created.The telephone has made the world smaller and more accessible to everyone. The telegraph was another invention that left a great impact on society. The telegraph worked by transmitting electrical signals of dots and dashes over a wire laid between stations.Within only nine years of the telegraph’s first message, only one state was not connected by telegraph. The telegraph reducing the amount of time it took to transfer information over large distances from weeks down to hours or minutes. The telegraph led to the inventions of the telephone, fax machines, and the Internet.The telegraph laid the basis for the communications revolution that led to those later inventions. The light bulb had its on major impact on society. The light bulb is the first electrical light used. The light bulb has made working for longer hours possible. It has also removed fire hazards like oil lamps and candles.Light bulbs help you work at all possible hours instead of being interrupted when the sun goes down. The light bulb impacts society with other inventions that use light bulbs as a main resource such as the flashlight, the microwave oven, head lamps, and light houses.They also allowed people to move around at night without any dangers. When cars were invented, light bulbs were used for head lights and traffic lights. Light bulbs became a major resource of light for many people since they was invented. There are many inventions that impacted society within the late 19th century and the early 20th century.Light bulb, telephone, and the telegraph are the three major inventions that had the greatest impact on society. They have all made different types of impacts in several different ways but they are still considered to be some of the greatest inventions in history.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1168 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Mahatma Gandhi Essay Did you like this example? Project Description The ashram was originally established at the Kocharab Bungalow of Jivanlal Desai on 25 May 1915. The ashram was then shifted on 17 June 1917 to a piece of open land on the banks of the river Sabarmati. Reasons for this shift included Gandhi wanted to do some experiments in living (e.g. farming, animal husbandry, cow breeding, khadi and related construction activities for which he was in search of a barren land). Mahatma Gandhi lived at the ashram on the banks of the river Sabaramati between 1917 and 1930. It is from here that he commenced his salt march Dandi. Charles Correa was asked to design a memorial museum and study center in 1958 to house a treasure of some 30,000 letters written to and by Gandhi, photographs and documents including several hundred volumes edited by his secretary Mahadev Desai. Jawaharlal Nehru Indias first Prime Minister inaugurated the building. It preserves and makes available tons of thousands of books concerning Gandhi, his philosophies and Indias independence. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya" essay for you Create order The architects design for this memorial institution of Mahatma Gandhi was designed and built from 1958 to 1963. The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya is an excellent example of combining the Hindu Architectural or cosmological idea of isotropy can be seen in Hindu temples on their fa? §ade by applying repeated small infinitely scalable structures. The ashram is made up of the main ashram pavilion, two guest houses, open prayer ground and a museum. Handcrafted paper and fabric are produced here and are the main attraction for tourists. The modular pavilion unit is designed for easy extension and emphasizes the accumulation of a single element to make a whole. Correa placed five distinctly programmed interior spaces within the asymmetrical grid plan. The plan of the museum has also been compared to village houses in Indias Banni region. Instead of a single volume, the house consists of five huts each with a different function which surround to make a courtyard. The inhabitants walk back and forth across the open outside space to use different rooms. Critical Project Description The architecture of Sabramathi Ashram interprets the form of space through material and construction techniques. He chooses these means in consonance with the purpose and it is the nature of purpose which provides the sense of space for which the form stands for. This building has five interior rooms which has the collection of the museum, the rooms are covered by brick walls and wooden louvered screens. All the five rooms are a part of 6mt square module and Correas subtle changes of the enclosure allow for variety in the modules lighting, temperature and visual permeability. Correa used simple and naturally available materials and pure forms such as hollowed cubes and pyramid roof made out of stone, clay tiles, timber which represents the simplicity of the structure and also the reliance on local materials. The modular simplicity of the structure is continued in the basic materials like stone floors, brick walls, wooden doors and louvered windows devoid of glass. These choices strongly adhere to the philosophy of Gandhi advocated and practiced in his life.   I dont want my house to be walled on all sides and my windows be stuffed. I want the cultures of all the lands to blow above house as freely as possible, but I refuse to be blown off my feet by any of them. This statement seems to be the basis for the architects choice of pavilion form. The simplest derivatives of natural forms are the cuboids and the pyramids which are open from open from sides and sheltered from above. The sense of enclosure is seen from the assembly of these two forms and leaves all the sides open to all directions on the side of river bank. The building design is based on the modular pattern and pavilion module measures 6mt square and has a roof height of about 2.10mt under the channel beam supported over four ?H shaped brick piers. The channel beam in turn supports a pyramid shaped roof made from timber which is cladded with bolts from inside and Mangalore bricks from outside. The pavilion in the ashram is open from all the sides and is very flexible for connections on the sides and for further expansion. The pavilion gives an impression of a floating plane as it is lifted off the ground level. The plan of ashram is similar to the village houses of Banni region in India where a central courtyard is provide instead of a single volume and the huts are constructed on the perimeter of the site. The inhabitants can walk back and forth to use different rooms. The ashram consists of a square uncovered shallow pool located in between five rooms and each room has different functions such as letters, office, meetings, books, photos and paintings. In Ahmedabad, the dry season is mostly clear, and the wet season is mostly cloudy but the temperature is hot throughout the year. The temperature throughout the year typically varies from 20 degree Celsius to 42 degree Celsius. The architect keeping in mind the harsh summer temperatures of Ahmedabad designed the building with a central water court and on the banks of Sabramati river in such a way that the cooled air can be introduced into the building. This is because of the fact that the water has high latent heat of vaporization, it absorbs large amount of heat from the surrounding air for evaporation and then introduces cool air into the building. This building is completely build keeping in mind the Vastu system in India. Th directions according to vastu as follows North East: As books are considered as the symbol of positive energy they are placed in north east direction. Light reaches this room around 4am to 6am so it is best suited for pooja, yoga, meditation, studying. This part is called as Ishana. North West and West: This direction is considered as the house of wind and water god so the toilet is placed in this direction with louvered windows. East: This direction is ruled by Sun God and the river Sabramathi flows in the direction of east and south east it is believed that the morning sun purifies water and the water is germ free and so the building is placed accordingly. South East: This is dedicated to god of fire so a snack shop is proposed in this direction. South: Office is placed in this direction so that good ventilation is attained. South West: This direction is dedicated for ancestors or pitru. This part of the building is for store and living spaces and hence the building entry and open gallery starts from this direction. Site entry is from the West. The construction and the scale of the building merges very well with the environment and the surrounding structures which was built as the residence of Gandhi and other dignitaries who were visiting him time and again while he stayed there. The overall image of the ashram gives it an image of a ?place rather than a confined ?limited space.

Friday, December 27, 2019

International Economic Policy in Times of Crisis Essay

Governments face all kinds of crises every day, the approaches may be different but the goal is always the same—maintain stability. While, wars and crimes against humanity tend to take a toll on the population, infrastructure and terrain quite literally, financial crises can psychologically cripple a country. There’s something about a financial crisis that conjures a level of panic that could rival the outbreak of a deadly disease. Maybe this is caused by a lack of visible end, as it seems the light at the end of the tunnel is only made clear at the end of the crisis. Even with examples from history to refer to, each financial crisis seems to take on a version all its own like a new strain of a deadly virus. The government tries to†¦show more content†¦The Austrian School, support free market but believe there are too many variables and the shifts in equilibrium occur too quickly to rely on models instead use logical deduction based on fundamental axioms (). Mo netarists believe that the emphasis should be on the role of governments in controlling the money supply (). Keynesian economics and its modern variations remains a common school of thought in the U.S. that focuses on analyzing macroeconomic elements in the short term using models (). The protectionist inclined schools, like the American School and at times the Austrian School, prefer to use import tariffs and/or industry subsidies to calm the economy (). While, believers in free trade, like the Keynesian School and Monetarists, are partial to adjusting interest rates and fiscal stimulus in order to restore the economy. The Great Depression of the 1930s is often used today as a point of reference to learn from failed protectionist policies. Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929 marks the horrifying beginning to the Great Depression with the most devastating collapse in the stock market until the recent crisis. The U.S. government passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 in reaction to the financial crisis. The act raised tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to the second highest levels in AmericanShow MoreRelatedModern Egyptian Economy1526 Words   |  6 Pageswitnessing a series of economic and political reforms since the beginning of the 21st century. Starting from post-Gamal Abdel-Nasser’s era in 1990 several economic reforms and monetary policies have been implemented by the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) and other economic institutions. The economic reforms started by the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Programme (ERSAP), offered by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in 1991 wit h the aim of amending the economic imbalance of demand andRead MoreThe Asian Financial Crisis and Thailand: Catalyst for Change...or More of The Same? 1647 Words   |  7 Pagessustaining rapid economic growth. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay on The Real Ken and Barbie - 757 Words

In the play, A Doll House, written by Henrik Ibsen, the plot and themes all suggest that the title implies a metaphor rather than an imaginary toy. The benefits of the reader is an example of how a lovely young woman can go from this flawless, Betty Crocker made life, to having everything turned upside down, not having any resemblance to prior situations. This play models more of a real life situation, not a pre ordained Cinderella fairy tale, and throughout the sequence, the main character, Nora, gets deeper and deeper into trials of tribulation. The meat and potatoes of this play revolves around a small amount, say 4800 crowns, that our damsel borrowed from an awfully suspicious humanitarian who is more than willing to†¦show more content†¦When a childhood friend drops by out of the blue, Nora can only provide a smidge of sympathy as she so valiantly describes how her life has been over these many years. Poor Ms. Linde widowed and without, comes to Nora in hopes of securing employment and residence. With a thin veil of, I could care less, Nora eases Ms. Lindes mind by suggesting shell talk Torvald into fitting her in down at the bank. After going through the spiel about how Nora dreams of, ...rich old gentlemen fallen in love... continued with, ...upon opening his will there in big letters All my fortune shall be paid over in cash, immediately to the enchanting Mrs. Nora Helmer.. (222), Mrs. Linde still is there listening to her line, and is more than glad to mend some clothes for her. Nora is not the most bala nced friend. The stench of scandal is thick in the Helmer household. Upon the introduction of the family friend Dr. Rank, both Torvald and Dr. Rank excuse themselves to take care of some personal issues. Enter Mr. Krogstad, our well intentioned, cut throat. Mr. Krogstad pleas with Nora to have his new boss, Torvald, down at the bank restore his position. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Analyse The Climate Change In The New South Wales Area of Australia

Question: Discuss about the Analyse The Climate Change In The New South Wales Area of Australia. Answer: Introduction The climatic conditions on Earth have been changing from a long time back in the history. In the past 649000 years, seven cycles of frigid progress and retreat have been witnessed, and the ice age ended abruptly some 6998 years ago, after which the climatic change in the atmosphere began. A huge part of these climate changes is credited to little assortments in Earth's circle that change the measure of sunlight the planet gets. The present warming example is of particular centrality in light of the way that a vast bit of it is incredibly liable to be the result of human development since the mid-twentieth century.The warm getting nature of carbon dioxide and diverse gasses was appeared in the mid-nineteenth century. Their ability to impact the trading of infrared imperativeness through the earth is the intelligent introduce of many instruments flown by NASA. There is almost certainly that extended levels of nursery gasses must reason the Earth to warm as needs be.The aim of this repo rt is to analyse and discuss the climate change in the New South Wales area of Australia, having a key focus on its capital, Sydney. The report begins with giving a general idea about the climate in Sydney, the recent changes in the regional climate, its effects, the future projection of these climatic changes and the governments attempts to mitigate these effects (Commonwealth of Australia, 2017). Climatic conditions in Sydney Sydney appreciates a radiant atmosphere with mellow winters and hoy summers, ideal for capitalizing on the outside. The summer season in Sydney starts from December and stays up to the month of February. Amid summer, normal temperatures extend from 19 26.2C, and normal moistness spikes to 66%. This is an awesome time to make the most of Sydney's bounteous shore lines, when water temperatures ascend to 20 - 23C.Harvest time is the mildest season in Sydney, which begins in March and continues until the end of May. During these months the stickiness drops and normal temperatures fall between 14 - 21C. Fresh, outside air makes harvest time the season for making the most of Sydney's beach front strolls. Sydney's coolest months are June to August when normal temperatures drop between 10- 18C . Sydney's precipitation is for the most part most elevated in June, with a normal of 132 mm, while July is the coolest month when normal daytime temperatures achieve only 12.8C . In the spring, that extends from September to November, the days are hotter however the humidity is not as high as summer. Normal everyday temperatures go from 10- 22C (Lambert, 2017). Recent Changes in the climate A mid year heat wave burnt the most populated parts of Australia recently, with temperatures topping 108 degrees Fahrenheit in Sydney and 96 degrees in Melbourne, with readings up to 118 degrees more distant inland.As fierce blazes seethed and a few climate stations revealed unsurpassed and month to month record highs, atmosphere researchers cautioned that this present summer's outrageous warmth, super-charged by environmental change, is turning into Australia's new normal (Australian Government, 2017). Nearly consistently has brought extraordinary warmth this mid year, however the most recent surge was remarkable by enveloping about all of New South Wales, home to the capital Sydney and 7.7 million individuals. The normal most extreme temperature hit 111.4 degrees Fahrenheit Saturday crosswise over around 300,000 square miles, like a territory the extent of the southeastern U.S. The warmth has helped fuel substantial out of control fires and starting late Sunday, 48 fires were wearing out of control in New South Wales. A huge number of individuals were being emptied in some rustic ranges, with authorities saying the conditions are more regrettable than amid the lethal Black Sunday fires that killed 175 individuals in 2009, Australian media revealed. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology anticipates that better than expected warmth will hold on through February and into March.The territory of New South Wales was 6 degrees Fahrenheit better than expected in January, making it the third-hottest January record. A few towns west of Sydney had record-setting dashes of temperatures over 104 degrees Fahrenheit, with the pattern proceeding into February, as indicated by a current post on NOAA's Climate.gov site (Tourism Australia, 2017). The development of warmth catching ozone depleting substance contamination in the climate implies things will deteriorate. Before the century's over, Australia's tropics will see an extra 40-50 heat wave days, while Sydney and Melbourne will see 2030 more days of outrageous warmth every year. Winter in the Greater Sydney district was drier than normal generally speaking, and Sydney's driest since 2009. The days were hotter than normal, albeit like the previous winter. Normal to cooler than normal least temperatures were across the board inland, albeit hotter than normal overnight temperatures ruled nearer to the coast. Most extreme temperatures were better than expected for winter crosswise over Sydney. The mean average greatest temperature in Sydney was 19 C, the equivalent seventh-hottest on record and equivalent to winter 2016. The end of July was especially warm, with many stations over the city recording their hottest July day on record on the 30th. Observatory Hill recorded 26 days over 19 C amid the season and Parramatta North recorded 25 days, both of which are more than normal yet like the quantity of warm winter days lately. Least temperatures at Observatory Hill were over the long haul normal, however ,were somewhat colder than normal in suburbia; winter least temperatures for Parramatta North were 6.6 C for winter, 0.8 C colder than normal (Berwyn, 2017). Social Impact of Climatic Change Changes in precipitation and higher dissipation rates are probably going to prompt less water for streams and waterways in the Sydney Metropolitan Catchments, which will have downstream outcomes for stockpiles and place strains on the catchment's water assets. For instance, because of late patterns toward decreased precipitation, as of August 2012, catchment stockpiles at Woronora were at just 30% of the limit. Likewise, a lot of Sydney Metro's water assets are sourced from the neighbouring Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, where various key stockpiles are additionally at under half capacity.Therefore, the majority of environmental change effects of Sydney's water supply may come about because of impacts in upstream catchments (Fountain, 2017). Higher temperatures will prompt lacking winter chilling for some natural product trees, which may decrease organic product yield and quality. It might end up noticeably important to consider low chill assortments and option administration alternati ves. Be that as it may, higher temperatures are probably going to lessen the danger of harming winter ices. Changes to the atmosphere will highly affect the catchment's plants and creatures. As of now, 151 species, ten populations and 23 biological groups in the catchment are delegated debilitated or imperiled. Although, the dangers to the catchment's biodiversity are generally a result of land clearing, modifications of waterway streams and water abstraction, environmental change is probably going to additionally intensify protection endeavours. The geographic circulation of an animal group is regularly characterized by its 'atmosphere envelope,' reflecting species-particular resistances to extremes of temperature and dampness. Environmental change is probably going to drive changes in the dispersion of some plant and creature species, driving a few species out of the catchment or empowering trespassers to move in. In the mean time, even those species equipped for adapting to envir onmental change alone may capitulate to the aggregate impacts of different alterations. In spite of such effects, little is really known, with respect to how environmental change may influence the catchment's rich biodiversity or biological communities, for example, its jeopardized beach front saltmarsh. Hotter winters are probably going to decrease diseases caused by cold weather, however hotter summers are probably going to expand the danger of warmth related medical issues, particularly in the elderly population. For instance, environmental change and populace development and maturing may expand yearly heat related passings in those matured more than 67 in Sydney from 178 at present to 362 414 by the year 2020 and 720 1,300 by 2050. Hotter temperatures may likewise add to the spread of irresistible infections, in spite of the fact that the spread of tropical illnesses, for example, dengue fever into the Sydney-Metro catchment stays unlikely (CSIRO, 2016). The assembled condition is likewise defenceless against environmental change. And also affecting on homes, it will influence foundation, business structures and other physical resources. Changes in normal atmosphere will influence building plan and execution, including basic guidelines and cooling and warming interest. Higher summer temperatures, for instance, may instigate the revaluation of building plan and gauges to guarantee warm solace at negligible cost, while potential increments in outrageous breezes may require more vigorous development. What's more, an examination by Austroads reasoned that environmental change would add to increments in street support costs in NSW of up to 28% by 2100, to a great extent because of suspicions about the impacts of environmental change and populace development on activity volumes (Shaftel, 2017). Given increments in the force of the heavy rainfall occasions, streak flooding and strains on water foundation, for example, sewerage and waste frameworks would rise, especially in urban territories. For instance, an examination by a researcher found that environmental change may twofold surge related harms in urban zones of NSW, although the latest model proposes that extraordinary precipitation occasions along the NSW coastline may decay, yet increment advance inland. Despite changes in such extremes, higher temperatures and lower normal precipitation are probably going to prompt expanded weight on urban water and vitality supplies, unless directed by request administration measures. For instance, another scientist assessed that per capita water request in Sydney would need to decrease by 56% by 2030 keeping in mind the end goal to stay inside supportable yields. Higher temperatures would build summer crest will increase the request for aerating and cooling, expanding the danger of power outages (Energy, 2017). Displaying of climate designs along the NSW drift demonstrates the potential for increments in the recurrence of climate occasions that add to outrageous breezes and, therefore, storm surges. Such increments in the storm surge, in conjunction with future ocean level ascent, would expand the danger of beach front immersion, disintegration, and harm to framework and property. A famous researcher, Cowell assessed middle disintegration at Manly Beach from ocean level ascent of 32.9meters (88 meters) by 2100. Given an ocean level ascent of 19 cm by 2050, seaside disintegration of up to 23 meters is anticipated for Collaroy/Narabeen shoreline, ascending to 109 meters given a 1 out of 50 year storm surge, with related monetary misfortunes of $230 million. The danger loss of property because of bushfire is expected to incline. For instance, by and large Sydney is probably going to encounter 0 3 more days with a fire risk list of "high" or "extraordinary" by 2020 and 27more days by 2050. Given the extensive number of properties in bushland and the introduction of basic framework, this would posture challenges for crisis administration. As an outcome of these and several other variations in extremes, for example, winds and surges, protection hazard evaluations and premiums are probably going to be influenced. Climate change projections (2030, 2050, 2100) The Sydney Water Balance Project has discovered that there might be a reduction in yearly precipitation and spill over in the inland catchments and minor increments in the beach front catchments by 2030. Environmental change is likewise prone to bring about an expansion in dissipation all through the catchments, with the Sydney Water Balance Project is anticipating up to a 23% increment in container vanishing in inland catchments and a 10% increment in seaside catchments by 2070 (Doherty Slezak, 2017). In Sydney, exceptional warm days of more than 34 degrees Celsius are likely going to increase from 4 days for consistently starting at now experienced to up to 12 days by 2070 without overall movement to reduce emanations. Environmental change is also foreseen that would add to a development in the amount of ridiculous hedge fire days in parts of NSW. In the Sydney region the amount of over the top fire chance days could climb from the present 10 days for consistently to upwards of 16 of consistently by 2050. The exploration suggests that by 2020 fire seasons will start earlier and end possibly later, while being generally more extraordinary all through their length, with these movements winding up more explained by 2050. An addition in mean temperatures and a reduction in precipitation and relative dampness will most likely open up the fire hazard in south eastern timberlands, with extended fire repeat and level of area expended. As the quantity of days over 35 degrees Celsius increments and heat waves turn out to be more incessant, more individuals are probably going to endure warm related sicknesses and passing, with the elderly especially powerless. An expected 178 individuals matured 65 and over pass on every year in Sydney from death caused by the heat. This could conceivably ascend to 420 individuals per year by 2020 and up to 1300 by 2050. The inhabitants in NSW are more helpless to deaths caused by cold weather than the deaths caused due to heat. All things considered, the aggregate temperature-related passings are anticipated to be up to 1,900 of every 2100 with no relief, contrasted with 2750 out of a world with no human-actuated environmental change (Bureau of Meteorology, 2016). Mosquito-borne infections, for example, dengue and Murray Valley Encephalitis, can prompt genuine and at times hazardous diseases. Under modestly hotter and humid atmosphere conditions, there might be an expansion in the pervasiveness of some diseases that are caused by mosquitoes. Another ecological change related that is negatively affecting the human well being is the frequent occurrence of forest fires, air pollution increase and mental illness. These impacts of ecological change will be most conspicuous among people with less pay rates, the elderly and the sick population. Steps towards mitigation of these climatic changes The NSW Government has a scope of projects to guarantee that NSW has its influence in addressing the environmental change in Sydney and is set up for the unavoidable effects of environmental change. The Government has built up a reasonable heading for reacting to environmental change in NSW 2021, an arrangement which sets needs for sustainable power source, energy effectiveness and limiting the effects of environmental change in the NSW people group. Reducing emissions Energy proficiency Saving energy can decrease ozone depleting substance discharges while additionally diminishing force bills. The NSW Energy Efficiency Strategy contains a scope of measures to enable purchasers to spare vitality. Specifically, the Energy Savings Scheme requires power retailers to spare a specific measure of vitality by enhancing vitality productivity in family units and organizations. At the point when the plan began in July 2009, the objective for retailers was a sparing of 0.3% of power deals in NSW. This objective incremented to 4% of offers by 2014. Throughout the following decade it has helped diminish future ascents in family unit power charges by a normal $49.6 every year, bolster up to 1000 occupations and animate the developing NSW energy effectiveness industry with up to $1 billion in extra speculation (Energy, 2017). Renewable energy A noteworthy NSW Government centre is to help the State's sustainable power source industry. NSW 2021 sets an objective of 21% sustainable power source era by the end of 2020. Following the Solar and Renewable Energy Summit in 2011, an activity design is being created to recognize the open doors for interest in sustainable power sources and framework how the Government will fabricate a prosperous and manageable vitality segment in NSW that additionally adds to meeting Australia's 21% sustainable power source focus by 2020. Helping individuals and business reduce their emissions Exercises to decrease emissions can be a 'win-win' for both purchasers and nature. For customers, lessening discharges can likewise cut power charges and give a cradle against future value rises. The NSW Government has a scope of projects and activities intended to enable buyers to decrease their discharges. In NSW 2021, the Government has resolved to help organizations and family units to acknowledge yearly energy funds of 16,020 GWh by 2020 and furthermore bolster 220,100 low salary families to diminish vitality use by up to 21% by June 2014. The Save Power site is a one-stop shop that gives data and exhortation about what families and organizations can do to diminish energy utilization, bills and nursery discharges (Berwyn, 2017). Conclusion To conclude, it can be said that climate change is an inevitable process and Sydney is being greatly affected by these changes. The region has witnessed some major variations in its natural climate over the years. The population residing in the city has been constantly exposed to these changes and have suffered to a great extent because of it. Even though the process cannot be completely stopped, the government has introduced several schemes and programs through which the effects of these climatic changes can be minimised. The people of Sydney need to cooperate with the government and strictly follow these mitigation policies in order to live in the region healthily. References Australian Government, 2017. Climate change impacts in New South Wales: Potential impacts and costs, Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/climate-science-data/climate-science/impacts/nsw Berwyn, B., 2017. Australian Heat Wave Raises Concern for Country's New, Sizzling Normal, Available at: https://insideclimatenews.org/news/13022017/australia-heatwave-climate-change-sydney-melbourne Bureau of Meteorology, 2016. Report at a glance: State of the climate, Available at: https://www.bom.gov.au/state-of-the-climate/State-of-the-Climate-2016.pdf?bcsi_scan_64741547a7fe261b=0bcsi_scan_filename=State-of-the-Climate-2016.pdf Commonwealth of Australia, 2017. Greater Sydney in winter 2017: a warm and dry winter across the region. [Online] Available at: https://www.bom.gov.au/climate/current/season/nsw/sydney.shtml CSIRO, 2016. Climate Change in the Sydney Metropolitan Catchments, Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/pdf/climate.pdf?bcsi_scan_64741547a7fe261b=VKSY5wwFAj7z72j2UFfvKkxj/qmdAAAACEO/lQ==bcsi_scan_filename=climate.pdf Doherty, B. Slezak, M., 2017. Australia faces potentially disastrous consequences of climate change, inquiry told, Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/11/australia-potentially-disastrous-consequences-of-climate-change-inquiry-told Energy, D. o. E. a., 2017. Review of Australias climate change policies. [Online] Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/review-climate-change-policies Fountain, H., 2017. Sydneys Swelter Has a Climate Change Link, Scientists Say, Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/02/science/australia-heat-climate-change.html?mcubz=3 Lambert, O., 2017. New report reveals 2016 was hottest year on earth, Available at: https://www.news.com.au/technology/environment/climate-change/new-report-reveals-2016-was-hottest-year-on-earth/news-story/bd3ae7e5b79ae130e4bc307e6ab8bf45 Shaftel, H., 2017. Climate change: How do we know?, Available at: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/ Tourism Australia, 2017. Find information on temperature, rainfall and seasonal activities to help plan your holiday in Sydney.. [Online] Available at: https://www.australia.com/en-in/facts/weather/sydney-weather.html

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Old Testament Is A Compilation, And Like Every Compilation It Has

The Old Testament is a compilation, and like every compilation it has a wide variety of contributors who, in turn, have their individual influence upon the final work. It is no surprise, then, that there exist certain parallels between the Enuma Elish, the cosmogony of the Babylonians, and the Book of Genesis, the first part of the Pentateuch section of the Bible. In fact, arguments may be made that other Near Eastern texts, particularly Sumerian, have had their influences in Biblical texts. The extent of this 'borrowing', as it were, is not limited to the Bible; the Enuma Elish has its own roots in Sumerian mythology, predating the Enuma Elish by nearly a thousand years. A superficial examination of this evidence would erroneously lead one to believe that the Bible is somewhat a collection of older mythology re-written specifically for the Semites. In fact, what develops is that the writers have addressed each myth as a separate issue, and what the writers say is that their God surp asses every other. Each myth or text that has a counterpart in the Bible only serves to further an important idea among the Hebrews: there is but one God, and He is omnipotent, omniscient, and other-worldly; He is not of this world, but outside it, apart from it. The idea of a monotheistic religion is first evinced in recorded history with Judaism, and it is vital to see that instead of being an example of plagiarism, the Book of Genesis is a meticulously composed document that will set apart the Hebrew God from the others before, and after. To get a clear picture of the way the Book of Genesis may have been formed (because we can only guess with some degree of certainty), we must place in somewhere in time, and then define the cultures in that time. The influences, possible and probable, must be illustrated, and then we may draw our conclusions. If we trace back to the first appearance of the Bible in written form, in its earliest translation, we arrive at 444 B.C.. Two texts, co mponents of the Pentateuch referred to as 'J' and 'E' texts, can be traced to around 650 B.C. Note that 'J' refers to Yahweh (YHVH) texts, characterized by the use of the word 'Yahweh' or 'Lord' in accounts; 'E' refers to Elohist texts, which use, naturally, 'Elohim' in its references to God.1 But 650 B.C. isn't our oldest reference to the 'J' and 'E' texts; they can be traced, along with the other three strands of the Pentateuch, to at least 1000 B.C. Our first compilation of these strands existed in 650 B.C.. We must therefore begin our search further back in time. We can begin with the father of the Hebrew people, Abraham. We can deduce when he lived, and find that he lived around 1900 B.C. in ancient Mesopotamia2. If we examine his world and its culture, we may find the reasons behind certain references in Genesis, and the mythologies they resemble. The First Babylonian Dynasty had begun around 1950 B.C. and would last well into the late 16th century B.C.. The Babylonians had just conquered a land previously under the control of the Assyrians, and before that, the Summering. Abraham had lived during a time of great prosperity and a remarkably advanced culture. He was initially believed to have come from the city of Ur, as given in the Bible as "...the Ur of Chaldees". Earlier translations read, however, simply "...Land of the Chaldees"; later, it was deduced that Abraham had come from a city called Haran3. In any case, he lived in a thriving and prosperous world. Homes were comfortable, even luxurious. Copies of hymns were found next to mathematical tablets detailing formulae for extracting square and cube roots.4 The level of sophistication 4000 years ago is remarkable. We can also deduce that it was a relatively stable and peaceful society; its art is characterized by the absence of any warlike activity, paintings or sculptures.5 We also have evidence of an Israelite tribe, the Benjamites, in Babylonian texts. The Benjamites were nomads on the frontie r of its boundaries, and certainly came in contact with Babylonian ideas- culture, religion, ethics. The early

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero Essay Example

George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero Paper A dystopia does not pretend to be good, while an anti-utopia appears to be utopian or was intended to be so, but a fatal flaw or malefactor has perverted it (Maven Word of the day). Far to often these two terms are thought to be synonymous. Although they are similar, as said in the quotation above, there is a difference between dystopias and anti-utopias. The concept of an anti-utopia is quite prevelant in George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero. The lifestyle somebody leads may seem to people to be acceptable, fun, or even create the illusion of a utopia, when in actuality their actions either wind up hurting themselves or the ones they love. The danger of false allies can also tie in with this concept; somebody who is making a character feel safe, may actually be a person who would do nothing to hinder the characters demise, or even be the one plotting it. Characters take actions that they think will improve their situations, but deluded by hubris they often cannot. Rather than free them their actions put them in jeopardy. We will write a custom essay sample on George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on George Orwells 1984, Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, and Siegfried Sassoons The Hero specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The protagonist of each work I discuss, Winston in 1984, Alex in A Clockwork Orange, and Jack in The Hero deludes himself that he can create a utopia when in reality in each case misguided actions lead to death or imprisonment. The feeling of leading a self-beneficial lifestyle is often a misleading one. For example in the poem The Hero, Jack, who is the war hero in the poem, decides to go away to war. Jack fell as hed have wished, the mother said. (Sassoon, S. The Hero) This quote is expressing Jacks patriotism, and how he wished to die for his country. This also implies that Jack was excited to go to war, and viewed it as a positive thing, or even fun, to go and fight for his country. When he got there he was nothing but horrified, this is made obvious in this passage from the poem: He thought how Jack, cold-footed, useless swine/ Had panicked down the trench that night the mine. The battlefield was initially viewed as a glorious place to be, and an excellent way to serve your country, but in actuality is a horrifying, dreadful place that will do nothing but generate violence, and many senseless deaths. In saying this, this was is a place made out to be a utopia, but in actuality, it is an anti-utopia. In A Clockwork Orange the main character, Alex leads his life of crime knowing that nothing bad will come happen to him, because he has his droogies behind him. Not only his close circle, but also people around the town willing to create an alibi for him and his friends. He loves his criminal lifestyle simply because it feels good. It is not for the money that he does these horrible things, it is simply for the pleasure it gives him. Anything that gives somebody that much freedom, and that much pleasure is clearly a perfect world to them. This was Alexs perfect world. Oh just keep walking I said. And viddy what turns up, oh my little brothers. (Burgess, A. 6) Here Alex is assuring his droogs that they will be able to perform some ultra-violence that night. This illustrates how much they love this life of crime and that the four of them get gratification from their violent acts. While being violent, committing rape, and dishing out horrorshow tolchocks, these kids feel invincible. Little to Alexs knowledge, his acts will eventually lead to him being beaten by his victims, and tortured by the very people he hurts to in the construction of his own apparent utopia. This of course would change his little world from a place where everything is perfect, to a place where things only seem to be as such, and actually are horrible for little Alex. People begin to turn on him, and he loses his control over his droogies and society. At this point even his closest friends are contemplating a mutiny in their group. Once Alex is reformed, and unable to commit the ugly deeds that used to give him so much pleasure, he is still viewed by society as a hell-raising monster. People that he has done wrong unto in the past seek out revenge upon him. Even his parents have replaced him, and have a lodger living in his bed. Alexs actions that used to bring him such great joy are now the cause of his great emotional and physical pain. In 1984 the protagonist Winston Smith, is a very depressed fellow, due to the oppression of his government. He, much like Jack from The Hero, and Alex from A Clockwork Orange, chooses not to follow a boring lifestyle. Instead he searches for something that will bring them some excitement and happiness, something that will give them the illusion of a perfect world. Winston however seeks love out as his saviour from the cage that is life in 1984. He meets a girl named Julia, and he falls in love with her. Of course he never shows this in public, out of fear that a telescreen, or the thought police may see him. Once he meets this girl, she changes him; she gives him the incentive to rebel and have fun. He becomes very interested in the secret brotherhood, and the demise of the INGSOC party. When speaking to OBrien, whom Winston suspects runs the brotherhood, Winston says: We believe that there is some kind of conspiracy, some kind of secret organisation working against the party, and that you are involved in it. We want to join it and work for it. We are enemies of the party. (Orwell, G. 177) This only shows how intent he is on escaping his life of imprisonment, and to attain some amount of freedom. He spills out his beliefs in hopes that OBrien shares them, when if he didnt, it would be the end of Winston, the thought police would take him away. He wants so badly for this brotherhood to be real that he acts as though it is, even when the consequences could be fatal. When the telescreen is turned off, Winston feels free to say what he wants. This has created an anti-utopia. This is an anti-utopia because Winston thinks he is safe from the eyes of the party, but really he is being watched, and OBrien is a member of the thought police. This belief in his temporary perfect world leads to his capture by the thought police. Just as Jack believed his world was perfect, and Alex believed his world was perfect, their over confidence in their lifestyles leads to the end of them. Often individuals can be lured into anti-utopias by people who give them a false sense of security. These people are called false allies. In all three of the pieces of literature being discussed, the protagonist has false allies who lead to their demise. In The Hero Jack went away to war, with hopes of serving his country, and making a difference. During WWI there was a lot of propaganda making going away to war look like a fun thing to do, and not only that, but the right thing to do. There were no warnings that one may die at war, or that it was a dangerous thing to do. The government, and the army, who are ones who created this propaganda, created a anti-utopia for the soldiers, making them think that they were going away to have fun, and to fight for their country. In reality, these men were going away to live with diseases and poverty, and would most likely die. how hed tried/ To get sent home, and how, at last, he died/ Blown to small bits. And no one seemed to care (Sassoon, S. The Hero) This quote shows how little the government and the officers cared about the soldiers, all they cared about was getting a lot of them. They had no interest in their well being. They led the young soldiers to their deathbed, by advertising the war as something positive and glorious, and not warning people of the risks. In A Clockwork Orange, Alex encounters many false allies; probably the best example of this is Dr. Branom and Dr. Brodsky. Prior to Alex being exposed to the awful films and torture that they give him, they make this new treatment out to be nothing but a quicker way to get out of jail and to be reformed. When Alex asks what is in store for him, they never tell him that it is going to be painful, or how it will affect him. Alex asks what the new treatment consists of and Dr. Branom simply answers Its quite simple, really. We just show you some films. (Burgess, A. 73) Although this is not a lie per-se, because they do show him films, it is very misleading. Branom makes it sound as though he is just going to watch a couple of nice movies. Really the films Alex is going to watch are ones that will torture him, make him sick to his stomach, and take away his free will. The two doctors did not care about the mental or physical health of Alex; they only cared about making a name for themselves, and making advancements in science. The misleading information that they gave to Alex made the treatment appeal to him, and so he went through with it. He had trust in these doctors, and believed they had saved him from the awful prison and brought him to a better place. I lay on the bed thinking this was like real heaven (Burgess, A. 74). This is a quote by the narrator, Alex, speaking about this new facility he was in, the doctors made him think that this place was great, in hopes that he would help them in their research. Their plan works. They had duped Alex into thinking that they were his allies, thus an anti-utopia was created. He had signed papers and now he was theirs to do with whatever they wanted. In 1984, Winston finds a junk shop where he can buy things from the past, and try to figure out what went on before the rule of INGSOC and Big Brother. Inside this shop, was a humble, and caring little shop owner, by the name of Mr. Charrington. This man seems to support Winston, and his rebellious life-style, and empathises with his hate for the party. He gains Winstons trust by showing him the room upstairs. When Charrington takes Winston to the upstairs. Winston observes: Theres no telescreen! he could not help murmuring. Ah said the old man, I never had one of those things. (Orwell, G. 100-101) By telling Winston that there is no telescreen, he implies that Winston is safe, and this room could be somewhat of a sanctuary for him. This leads Winston into later renting the room out and living there with his mistress. In actuality there is a telescreen in this room, it is just hidden behind a picture. Also, M r. Charrington is actually not the kindly old man he makes himself out to be. He is nothing more than a deceitful, dishonest pawn used by Big Brother to catch Winston and Julia. Charrington pretending to be a comrade and an ally of Winstons leads him into becoming over confident thinking he is free from all worries in his room, and eventually being detained and brainwashed by the thought police in the ministry of love. Going away to war can be viewed as an act of confidence. You would never go anywhere where there were to be deaths, if you were thinking you were going to be the one dying. Therefore I can conclude that when Jack went off to war, he probably was confident that his country was far superior, and he was to come out unharmed. Overconfident people are more likely to wage in war, but fare worse in the ensuing battles mentally healthy people can have highly optimistic predictions, or positive illusions in present day, optimism may wreak havoc on international relations (Khamsi, R. Overconfidence is a Disadvantage at War) When Jack was in the trenches, it was not at all what he had expected. He was not prepared for such a gruesome experience. The fact that he was ill prepared for war, made him panic. Had panicked down the trench that night the mine/ Went up at Wicked Corner; how hed tried/ To get sent home, and how, at last, he died (Sassoon, S. The Hero) This passage tells about how Jack panicked in the trenches, and died because of it. Since his ill preparation was due to his over confidence, and his panic due to his ill preparation, and his death due to his panic, it was Jacks own hubris that killed him. He had created a perfect world of heroic adventures for himself in his mind, and then when he was actually in this world, it was one of horrible terrifying experiences, thus an anti-utopia. Jack, like Alex, and Winston, had embraced the utopian idea that he could control the world around him and, like the others, is destroyed when it becomes clear that he in fact has no control over his situation. Alex, after having his authority questioned the night before, in a heated discussion sparked when he struck the largest of his three droogies, he wanted to show why he was the boss. He and his three droogs had decided to do some ultra violence on an old ladys home. After a failed attempt at getting her to open the door by pretending they had a wounded man with them, Alex decided he would gain entry another way. He told his droogs he would get in, and then open the door for them, so they could all partake in the ultra violence. Once Alex got inside, he was having second thoughts about his plan. I thought to myself that I would show these fickle and worthless droogs of mine that I was worth the whole three of them and more. I would do all on my oddy knocky. I would perform the old ultra-violence on the starry ptitsa and on her pusspots if need be, then I would take fair rookerfuls of what looked like real polezny stuff and go waltzing to the front door and open up showering gold and silver on my waiting droogs. They must learn all about leadership. (Burgess, A. 46) This is an example of Alex getting cocky, which he did quite often, however, this time Alex did not achieve the outcome he expects. Without his droogies with him, Alex had no backup. When he tried to attack the homeowner, he slipped in a saucer of her cats milk, and he was caught off guard. He was beaten about the head, and it was quite hard for him to overcome the woman. Although he did win the battle, when he went to flee, the police had shown up, and his so called droogs had left him all on his oddy knocky for the police to pick him up. Had Alex not been so cocky, and let his droogs in as planned, the job would have gone smoother, and he would have gotten away in time. Instead he figured things would be perfect if he went in all alone, and did this by himself. He failed to see the downfall of his plan, all he saw was what could go right, making this situation seem somewhat of a utopia, he would get to perform ultra violence, and he would gain the respect of his droogies back. What Alex didnt see was what actually happened, he was blind to the downfalls of his plan, making this situation actually an anti-utopia. Alexs own hubris led him to being incarcerated by the police, and eventually brainwashed. Unlike Alex, who delighted in brutal, theatrical public self-assertion, Winston had always been a very secretive person. Winston had always been a very secretive person, living in the shadows, fearing and knowing, that the telescreens would one day catch him either writing in his diary, or perhaps doing something even more severe. Winston could hide from it long enough to write in his diary even though he knew he would get caught eventually(No Listed Author, Satire In 1984) After he learned of the room above Mr. Charringtons shop that had no telescreen, he believed he had found a safe haven. He and Julia knew that they were safe there; because there was no way that the party could be watching them. They did everything and anything the party was against here, they were free to do whatever their heart desired. This room was their getaway place, somewhere where everything was perfect, they believed it to be their utopia. But we must remember that the word Utopia comes from the Greek word meaning no place or place that does not exist. This was far to good to be true. One day while having a conversation in the room they heard a voice, a cold strong voice saying You are the dead. This startled them, and they were instantly stiff with fear. It was then that the picture of a church fell and they saw a telescreen. They then realized that this whole time there had been a telescreen present, they were being watched this whole time. They also then realized that Mr. Charrington was part of the thought police. The two lovers were then brought to the ministry of love, and brainwashed. There little room was an anti-utopia, it seemed to be a utopia, but it was actually quite the opposite. Hubris led to the inevitable demise of these two lovers, they were too confident in their safe haven, and too content to realize it was too good to be true. Confidence was their tragic downfall, just as it was for Alexand Jack Is utopia a place where crimes against humanity are committed? Is utopia a place where people cant choose what to do with their lives? Is a utopia a place where there is no love? Every attempt humans have made to reach a perfect world, has been pointless. Perfection doesnt exist. Utopias dont exist. (No Listed Author, The Strange Utopia of The Giver) This supports what is said in the above essay, utopias are true to their Greek meaning, place that does not exist because they do not exist. If one disagrees and believes that they are living in a utopia, it results from either over confidence or being misled by the false claims of others or both. Rather than striving for utopias we must strive to be as aware of our surrounding as possible to prepare for and ideally minimize the dangers that are always a part of human existence and exist within any social system.